PSYCHOLOGICAL PROBLEMS IN TEENS

In the digitally active lifestyle of today’s generation, a lot of psychological factors concerning children remain unnoticed. This psychological imbalance should not be ignored as they can affect the growth of an individual.

There are a lot of biological explanations for different psychological problems in teens. Here are the five most common psychological problems faced by Teenagers who need special attention.

Schizophrenia

Schizophrenia is probably one of the most misunderstood psychiatric diagnosis. It is a psychotic disorder which generally begins in late adolescence. It’s a condition of functional abnormality of the brain which affects the way a person perceives the world. People are often afraid of certain psychotic symptoms and they tend to avoid the person suffering from Schizophrenia.

Symptoms-

  • Hallucination is one of the prime symptoms of Schizophrenia. These can be auditory or visual hallucinations. They can experience things which do not actually exist in real world.

Now, these hallucinations aren’t vague. A patient can hear vivid voices in their head and these voices may pertain in their heads 24/7. These hallucinations are so realistic that sometimes it’s difficult for the patient to differentiate between hallucination and reality.

  • Delusion is another major symptom of Schizophrenia. Its different from hallucinations. In this condition, the patient has a highly firm belief about something which is really not plausible and they are unshakable on that.
  • Disorganized thinking counts as a symptom of Schizophrenia. Thought process of the patient appears to be very loose. It becomes difficult for the listener to make sense out of their conversation. Sometimes, they use things called neologisms which are words that they make-up. Their thought process are disorganised and hardly make any sense to the listeners.

Treatment available for Schizophrenia-

Medication: Early stage diagnosis coupled with appropriate medication can reduce the impact of Schizophrenia on an individual. Medication helps in controlling the brain’s cognitive and emotional functioning.

Psychological Treatments:  For someone with Schizophrenia, “Talk Therapy” can turn out to be extremely helpful as it can help in controlling the thoughts and emotions.

Generalized Anxiety Disorder

Nearly 1 out of 3 teenager experiences Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD). It can impact a teen’s life to the extend where they would not even step out of the house. Anxiety Disorder can be explained in a way that it disrupts the way brain controls the signals it uses to identify danger. Therefore, a person starts experiencing danger signals even when there is no danger.

Symptoms-

  • Someone suffering from GAD will have a tendency to worry excessively about different things. Even after knowing the fact that they are worrying too much about something, they face great difficulty in controlling their worry.
  • Additional symptoms includes-
  • Restlessness, feeling on the edge
  • Light-headedness
  • Feeling Puckish
  • Difficulty in swallowing
  • Anticipating the worst outcome for every situation is the most common symptom of Generalized Anxiety Disorder. Patient tends to overthink every situation and their end judgement always end up on a pessimistic note.

Treatment available for Generalized Anxiety Disorder-

Medication: Benzodiazepines and Serotonin Specific Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) are considered to be effective medication in the case of Generalized Anxiety Disorder .

Psychological Treatments:  Cognitive Behaviour Therapy has been found to be the most effective therapy for Generalized Anxiety Disorder. It helps in coping up with the deep rooted fear that the patient might have. Talk Therapy goes hand in hand with Cognitive Behaviour Therapy. It helps in controlling the pace of thoughts and emotions in the mind.

Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

ADHD is basically a chronic inability to maintain attention and focus with potentially some impulsivity and hyperactivity. Though the ADHD symptoms are usually present at the age of 12 but it is generally diagnosed after a child enters the school. Five percent of children suffers from ADHD.

ADHD in children is often accompanied by other mental issues like anxiety, depression and Oppositional Defiant Disorder.

Symptoms-

  • Teens with ADHD often experiences low self-esteem and poor social skills.
  • Children with ADHD often shows predominantly inattentive and hyperactive behaviour.
  • They frequently start many activities without finishing any. They are quite fickle minded.
  • They often seem impatient and have low tolerance for frustration.
  • People with ADHD can be easily distracted by the environment. They face difficulty in staying at one place, hence they try to constantly be in motion.

Treatment available for Generalized Anxiety Disorder-

Medication: Stimulants and some type of anti-depressants are some of the commonly used medication for curing ADHD.

Psychological Treatments:  Practicing meditation often helps in increasing the concentration level. It also helps in reducing the impulsive behaviour.

Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

Obsessive Compulsive Disorder is a specific type of anxiety disorder characterized by the obsessions and compulsion. Obsessions are recurrent and intrusive thoughts that are typically unwanted. These obsessions or unwanted thoughts then leads to compulsion, which are actions that are performed to reduce the anxiety caused by obsession. Sometimes, patients may feel compelled to rearrange things because when they are out of order, it causes anxiety and discomfort.

OCD affects around 3%of the population. It usually starts in childhood or in the teenage.

Symptoms-

Some common obsessions:

  • Obsession of having things in particular order.
  • Obsession of checking whether a particular action was performed or not, which can lead to anxiety and stress. The patient continuously thinks about the damaging consequence that may happen if a certain action is not performed.
  • Obsession of being in contact with germs which leads to anxiety of having disease.

Some common compulsions:

  • Repeatedly washing hands or cleaning something.
  • Repeatedly arranging and rearranging stuff.
  • Repeatedly checking on something.

Treatment available for Generalized Anxiety Disorder-

Medication: Specific Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) are considered to be effective medication for curing OCD.

Psychological Treatments: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy can be helpful for treating a OCD patient. It shows people how to overcome their obsessions and compulsions by changing their way of thinking or by controlling the intensity of their thoughts.

Depression

The prime reason for depression to become prevalent in teenagers now is the lack of interpersonal social interaction. The continuous social life makes it difficult for the child to stand before an adult and have a conversation without looking at any screen. Depression is not just about feeling sad. It’s more like a situation where a person loses control over the way they feel. It’s like a negative lens through which they see and experience the world.

Symptoms-

  • The patients feels sad and low almost all the time.
  • Trouble in concentrating.
  • Experience fatigue all day.
  • The patient starts losing interest in all the activities that they use to enjoy.

Treatment available for Generalized Anxiety Disorder-

Medication: Various type of anti depressants are used to control emotions and thoughts by the doctor.

Psychological Treatments: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy and Interpersonal therapy, both can be helpful in making the patience feel like they can open up to someone. Also, it helps in controlling the emotions.

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